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Sponsored by 41 and other parts need to additionally con- sider reactive power. This means that they need to be de- signed for apparent power, the geometric sum of active and reactive power. The ohmic losses during energy conduction occur based on apparent power; addition- al reactive power therefore leads to greater conduction losses. Going Forward PV systems are relative newcomers to the energy production field. Like other emerging technologies, PV systems will be subject to rapid changes as the technol- ogy matures. As a result, PV systems will undoubtedly continue to evolve to meet market demands for higher capacity, lower cost and higher reliability. As this happens, PV inverters will expand in functionality, and designers will demand more integrat- ed, application-specific, component-level devices. As these events unfold, PV power systems will become more widespread and ultimately represent a viable segment of the utility mainstream that significantly reduces our dependence on fossil fuels. p References: 1 From SMA Solar Technology website: http://www. sma.de/en/products/knowledge-base/sma-shifts-the- phase.html 2 Texas Instruments Application Report #SLVA446– November 2010, "Introduction to Photovoltaic Sys- tems Maximum Power Point Tracking" 3 Texas Instruments Application Report #SPRAAE3– May 2006, "TMS320C2000™ DSP Controllers: A Perfect Fit for Solar Power Inverters" 4 Avago "Integrate Protection with Isolation In Home Renewable Energy Systems" Whitepaper 5 "Analysis and Modeling of Transformerless Photo- voltaic Inverter Systems," by Tamás Kerekes, Aalborg University Institute of Energy Technology Denmark, August 2009 Formula 1: Reactive power calculation using the Pythagorean Theorem for right triangles. (Courtesy of SMA)

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